Birth certificate a commercial instrument

A certified copy is often used in English-speaking common law countries as a convenient way of providing a copy of documents.

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It is usually inexpensive to obtain. A certified copy may be required for official government or court purposes and for commercial purposes. It avoids the owner of important documents especially identity documents giving up possession of those documents which might mean a risk of their loss or damage. It has some similarities to a notarized copy, which is a form used in some countries, and particularly in some States in the USA.

A notarized copy is signed by a notary public not to be confused with a notary in a civil law country. The certified copy is signed by a person nominated by the person or agency asking for it. Typically, the person is referred to as an authorised person. The person who is authorised to sign the certificate will vary between countries.

Sometimes a person is authorised by legislation to do so for example a court clerk , solicitor , or notary public , but this is not always so. In some countries, for example the United Kingdom and South Africa, identity documents can also be certified by authorised Post Office staff. A copy of a primary document that is to be used internationally may have to be in the form of a notarized copy rather than a certified copy. A notarized copy may be more expensive to obtain.

A copy of a document to be used internationally may also have to comply with special rules - Hague Convention Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents. If the primary document has to be translated, an additional certificate is usually required. For example, a birth certificate in Russian is to be used in an English-speaking country. Typically, the document must be translated professionally and have the professional's certificate of accuracy attached to the translation together with a copy of the primary document. Then, the primary document, the translation, and the certificate of accuracy are photocopied in the form of a certified copy.

In the case of a birth certificate in English to be used in Russia, it is possible that a notarized copy will be required. In Australia, certified copies are solely the creation of administrative practice.

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There is no specific legislation at federal, State or Territory level. Certified copies have long been used to give a veneer of authenticity to a photocopy of a primary document. In practice, they are very easy to obtain at almost no cost other than the photocopy, and are used in a wide range of situations, especially with identity documents. In practice, and purely for convenience, a copy may usually be certified by a person who is able to witness a statutory declaration under federal legislation about Statutory Declarations. Part 2 of the Schedule lists various other professions and positions, the members or occupants of which may also certify copies for example, Judges, Police Officers and Members of Parliament.

A typical certificate endorsed on the photocopy, often typed or stamped except for the signature -. Certified copies can be quite basic in Australia due to the lack of legislation. More detail is often required by the person or agency requiring it. The aim of CITES is to ensure that international trade in wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. All imports, exports, and re-exports of species covered by the Convention have to be authorized through a system of permits and certificates.

Although CITES is legally binding on its Parties — in other words Parties have to implement the Convention — it does not take the place of national laws. Instead it provides a framework to be respected by each Party, which has to adopt its own domestic legislation to ensure that CITES is implemented nationally. There are around 29 plant species and 5 animal species covered by the provisions of CITES, and these are divided into three Appendices, depending on the degree to which they are threatened by trade:.

How can I identify a species? National CITES Management and Scientific Authorities may be able to provide assistance with species identification, as well as museums of national history or botanic and zoological gardens. It contains species for which import levels are monitored to determine the level of trade and any potential threats to the species caused by trade. Import permits are not only required for species listed in Annex A, but also for species listed in Annex B.

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Import notifications are required for species listed in Annexes C and D. Commercial trade in Annex A specimens is generally prohibited, although exemptions can be granted on a case-by-case basis and authorised with the issuance of special certificates. Although the EU Wildlife Trade Regulations are directly applicable in all EU Member States, the necessary enforcement provisions control and sanctions as well as the appointment of the Management and Scientific Authorities must be implemented in each Member State through the enactment of national legislation.

Amendments were made, for example, to provisions relating to: conditions applying to the identification and marking of specimens; the control of personal and household effects within the EU; and the conditions under which "Annex A" specimens can be subject to commercial activities within the EU. How do I know whether I need a permit to import or export wildlife specimens into or out of the European Union? Due to the establishment of the EU single market, there are no internal border controls in the EU and, generally, goods can be moved and traded freely inside the EU.

Consequently, no permits or certificates are needed for the movement inside the EU of specimens of a species listed in Annexes B, C or D. However, specimens of species listed in Annex A are generally not allowed to be traded for commercial purposes and their movement inside the EU is also strictly controlled. Commercial trade in specimens of species listed in Annex B is allowed within the EU provided that the specimen was imported or acquired in accordance with relevant laws. Are permits required to trade animals bred in captivity or for artificially propagated plants?

To qualify as an animal bred in captivity or as an artificially propagated plant, there are strict requirements which must be met.

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Specimens of species listed in Annex A that were born and bred in captivity or were artificially propagated are treated as specimens of species listed in Annex B, meaning that they can be imported into, exported or re-exported from the EU providing that they have a certificate from the Management Authority confirming that the specimen was indeed bred in captivity or artificially propagated in accordance with the definition provided in the EU Wildlife Trade Regulations.

Internal trade within the EU of captive-bred specimens of animal species listed in Annex A requires an internal trade certificate, which is issued on a case-by-case basis. In contrast, artificially propagated specimens of plant species listed in Annex A are subject to a general exemption and no internal trade certificate is required for commercial activities involving such specimens within the EU. I want to buy a pet or a plant in the EU, how do I know what the requirements are? Before you purchase your pet or plant, the first step is to check whether the species is listed in the Annexes of the EU Wildlife Trade Regulations.

What do I need to do if I see a specimen advertised on the Internet which I wish to purchase? To find out whether a species offered for sale on the Internet can legally be sold, the first step is to check whether the species is listed in the Annexes of the EU Wildlife Trade Regulations.

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If the species is listed, trade restrictions and permit requirements apply. You should also check carefully where the seller is based as this will affect the documentation that is required see Permits section of this website. For example:. For advice on document requirements for your country, including the documents the seller should provide to the buyer, you should contact your national CITES Management Authority. Also bear in mind that in addition to trade-related requirements, there may be sanitary, veterinary, agricultural or other documentary requirements.

To find out more information on the Internet posting itself, you can contact the administrator of the website that is hosting the sale. Some websites, such as eBay, have a ban on sales of certain wildlife products such as ivory.

UCC (Uniform Commercial Code) and Birth Certificate

Special certificates can be obtained if you wish to travel with a legally acquired pet animal of a species listed in Annexes A, B or C. These certificates are referred to as "personal ownership certificates" and can be used more than once, thereby avoiding the need to apply for a CITES permit each time an international border is crossed.

Where do I get documents from, and what conditions are there for issuance? If your pet originates from within the European Union, the certificate is issued by the Management Authority of the Member State from which the specimen originates. If your pet originates from a country outside of the European Union, the Management Authority of the EU Member State that was the first country of destination in the EU for the specimen issues the personal ownership certificate, on the condition that equivalent documentation from the country of export has been provided by the holder to that Management Authority.

Personal ownership certificates may only be issued for legally acquired live animals held for personal, non-commercial purposes. In order to facilitate this exchange and minimise the administrative burden, Art. The registration of the scientist or scientific institution must be carried out by the Management Authority of the Member State in which they reside.